Foodstruct Nutrition Search | Diet Analysis | Food Comparison | Glycemic Index Chart | Insulin Index Chart | Blog | Subscribe | Sign Up

Arugula vs. Spinach — Health Impact and Nutrition Comparison

Compare
Article author photo Victoria Mazmanyan by Victoria Mazmanyan | Last updated on June 27, 2023
Medically reviewed by Astghik Baghinyan Article author photo Astghik Baghinyan
Arugula
vs
Spinach raw

Summary

Arugula and spinach are not radically different, having similar calories, macronutrient content, and glycemic index; however, spinach contains four times more vitamins A and K, as well as two times more folate and vitamin C. Spinach is also relatively higher in iron, potassium, copper, manganese, and magnesium. This makes spinach a better choice in terms of nutrition.

While arugula and spinach both have numerous beneficial effects on health, spinach has been studied more extensively in the area of health.

Introduction

We all know that leafy vegetables are good for our health but are some greens better than others? This article will compare two greens – arugula and spinach – to see what nutrients they provide us with and how they impact our bodies.    

Classification

Arugula has many names, including salad rocket, garden rocket, eruca, rucola, colewort, and, scientifically, Eruca vesicaria, Eruca sativa, or Brassica eruca. It belongs to the Eruca genus and the Brassicaceae family. Arugula shares this family with broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and many more vegetables.

Spinach or Spinacia oleracea belongs to the Spinacia genus and the Amaranthaceae family. This family also includes vegetables, such as garden beets and chard, as well as pseudocereal quinoa.

Appearance

Arugula and spinach are easy to differentiate from each other by appearance. 

Spinach has smaller, rounded triangular leaves, while arugula leaves are pinnate-shaped with lobes on each side.

Arugula leaves also tend to be darker in color when compared to spinach.

Taste and Use

Arugula is famous for its peppery and slightly bitter taste. Spinach, however, has a much milder flavor, becoming more robust as it is cooked.

Arugula is believed to have originated from the Mediterranean region: Morocco, Portugal, Lebanon, and Syria. It’s either eaten raw as a side dish in Turkey, Egypt, Brazil, and Cyprus or is used as an ingredient in various dishes. For example, it is often added to pizza in Italy. Spinach, on the other hand, comes from ancient Persia. It is used in raw, fresh form in burgers and salads, often to replace lettuce.

Varieties

Based on the cultivar, the nutritional and physical properties of these greens can change.

The three main types of spinach are savoy, semi-savoy, and smooth-leafed spinach. Savoy spinach is also known as curly-leaf spinach. This variety usually has crispier leaves and is easier to cook with. The most popular varieties of savoy spinach are Regiment and Bloomsdale.

Semi-savoy spinach, as the name suggests, is somewhere in between savoy and smooth spinach. It has crispier leaves when compared to smooth-leafed spinach but is easier to clean than savoy spinach. The two common types of semi-savoy spinach are Tyee and Catalana.

And finally, the most popular varieties of smooth-leafed spinach are Space and Red Cardinal spinach.

Arugula also has a wide variety of cultivars with differing appearances, tastes, and nutritional values. The two primary commercially available groups of arugula are wild and common arugula. Wild arugula tends to have a more pungent taste.

Some of the widely known common varieties of arugula are Astro, Sylvetta, and Apollo.

Nutrition

The nutritional values are presented for raw arugula and spinach.

Macronutrients and Calories

The recommended serving size for both arugula and spinach is one cup, which is equivalent to 30 grams of spinach and 20 grams of arugula.

Although the serving sizes are only 20-30 grams, the nutritional content comparison below is made for 100 grams of serving to highlight the differences better. 

As can be easily seen in the visual nutrition comparison below, these foods have very similar nutritional contents. The macronutrient structure is nearly the same. Both arugula and spinach consist of 91% water, spinach being only a little denser.

Macronutrient Comparison

Macronutrient breakdown side-by-side comparison
Contains more Fats +69.2%
Contains more Protein +10.9%
Contains more Other +22.9%
Equal in Carbs - 3.63
Equal in Water - 91.4
3% 4% 92%
Protein: 2.58 g
Fats: 0.66 g
Carbs: 3.65 g
Water: 91.71 g
Other: 1.4 g
3% 4% 91% 2%
Protein: 2.86 g
Fats: 0.39 g
Carbs: 3.63 g
Water: 91.4 g
Other: 1.72 g
Contains more Fats +69.2%
Contains more Protein +10.9%
Contains more Other +22.9%
Equal in Carbs - 3.63
Equal in Water - 91.4
 

Calories

Arugula and spinach are very similar in calorie content, both being very low in calories.

A 100g serving of arugula contains 25 calories, only two more calories when compared to spinach.

Protein and Fats

Leafy vegetables are not particularly rich in most macronutrients. However, spinach contains a little more protein when compared to arugula.

The protein quality in both of these vegetables is high, as they contain some levels of all essential amino acids.

Arugula and spinach are very low in fats. Nevertheless, arugula has a slightly higher content of fats. The fat-type breakdown below also indicates that the predominant fats found in these greens are polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Naturally, arugula and spinach contain no cholesterol.

Fat Type Comparison

Fat type breakdown side-by-side comparison
Contains more Monounsaturated Fat +390%
Contains more Polyunsaturated fat +93.3%
Contains less Saturated Fat -26.7%
19% 11% 70%
Saturated Fat: 0.086 g
Monounsaturated Fat: 0.049 g
Polyunsaturated fat: 0.319 g
26% 4% 69%
Saturated Fat: 0.063 g
Monounsaturated Fat: 0.01 g
Polyunsaturated fat: 0.165 g
Contains more Monounsaturated Fat +390%
Contains more Polyunsaturated fat +93.3%
Contains less Saturated Fat -26.7%
  

Carbohydrates

Arugula and spinach contain nearly the same amount of carbohydrates. However, arugula is higher in sugar, while spinach contains more dietary fiber.

The little sugar content of spinach is made up of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and galactose.

Vitamins

There are relatively notable differences in vitamin content. 

Spinach is the winner in the vitamin category, as it contains significantly higher levels of almost all vitamins. 

Although both arugula and spinach are great sources of vitamins A, C, K, and folate, spinach contains 4 times more vitamin K and vitamin A, as well as around 2 times more folate and vitamin C

Some other vitamins found in higher amounts in spinach, when compared to arugula but in low quantities when put in the context of daily need, include vitamin B6, vitamin E, and vitamin B2

Spinach and arugula are both completely absent in vitamin B12 and vitamin D.

Vitamin Comparison

Vitamin comparison score is based on the number of vitamins by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" charts below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food.
:
Contains more Vitamin B5 +572.3%
Contains more Vitamin A +295.2%
Contains more Vitamin E +372.1%
Contains more Vitamin C +87.3%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +77.3%
Contains more Vitamin B2 +119.8%
Contains more Vitamin B3 +137.4%
Contains more Vitamin B6 +167.1%
Contains more Folate +100%
Contains more Vitamin K +344.7%
Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin K 143% 9% 0% 50% 11% 20% 6% 27% 17% 73% 0% 272%
Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin K 563% 41% 0% 94% 20% 44% 14% 4% 45% 146% 0% 1208%
Contains more Vitamin B5 +572.3%
Contains more Vitamin A +295.2%
Contains more Vitamin E +372.1%
Contains more Vitamin C +87.3%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +77.3%
Contains more Vitamin B2 +119.8%
Contains more Vitamin B3 +137.4%
Contains more Vitamin B6 +167.1%
Contains more Folate +100%
Contains more Vitamin K +344.7%

Minerals

Most minerals appear in approximately the same amounts. It’s important to mention that both arugula and spinach are relatively rich in iron, magnesium, potassium, copper, calcium, and manganese.

That being said, spinach is relatively higher in iron, potassium, magnesium, copper, and manganese.

Arugula, on the other hand, is slightly higher in calcium. 

Although both are also low in sodium, arugula is slightly lower when compared to spinach.

Mineral Comparison

Mineral comparison score is based on the number of minerals by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" charts below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food.
Contains more Calcium +61.6%
Contains less Sodium -65.8%
Contains more Iron +85.6%
Contains more Magnesium +68.1%
Contains more Potassium +51.2%
Contains more Zinc +12.8%
Contains more Copper +71.1%
Contains more Manganese +179.4%
Contains more Selenium +233.3%
Equal in Phosphorus - 49
Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper Manganese Selenium 48% 55% 34% 23% 33% 4% 13% 26% 42% 2%
Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper Manganese Selenium 30% 102% 57% 22% 50% 11% 15% 44% 117% 6%
Contains more Calcium +61.6%
Contains less Sodium -65.8%
Contains more Iron +85.6%
Contains more Magnesium +68.1%
Contains more Potassium +51.2%
Contains more Zinc +12.8%
Contains more Copper +71.1%
Contains more Manganese +179.4%
Contains more Selenium +233.3%
Equal in Phosphorus - 49

Nitrates

Leafy green vegetables are rich in natural compounds called dietary nitrates, which are partially responsible for various beneficial effects of these greens, such as improving vascular functions (1, 2).

Arugula is over four times richer in dietary nitrates when compared to spinach (2).

The nitrate content can be found in different amounts depending on the seasonal period. Studies have shown the nitrate content of leafy green vegetables to be higher in autumn (3),

Glycemic Index

An exact number has not yet been calculated for the glycemic index of arugula and spinach. However, dark green leafy vegetables are considered to have a low glycemic index due to their low sugar content (4).

One study has shown spinach consumption to lower the glycemic response of the meal. At the same time, another study found that spinach only improves insulin sensitivity but has no effect on blood glucose levels (5, 6).

Acidity

The pH value of the arugula is estimated to be around 6.9, making the acidity of the arugula neutral (7).

Spinach, however, has a slightly more acidic pH value that can fall anywhere from 5.38 to 7.18, depending on the cooking method (8).

An alternative way of looking at the acidity of foods is the potential renal acid load or the PRAL value. This value demonstrates how much acid or base the given food produces inside the organism.

The PRAL value of arugula and spinach are -7.9 and -11.8, respectively. This shows us that spinach is more base-producing when compared to arugula.

Weight Loss & Diets

Green leafy vegetables famously fit well into weight-loss diets.

Arugula and spinach are no exceptions, being low-calorie foods. A 100-gram serving of these vegetables provides 25 calories or less. Green leafy vegetables are also a good source of dietary fiber and micronutrients.

Of the two vegetables, spinach is the preferred choice during low-calorie, low-fat, and low-carb diets. However, both arugula and spinach are low in calories, fats, and carbohydrates.

Green leafy vegetables, especially spinach, are rich in a compound called thylakoid. Thylakoid has been found to reduce hunger and cravings for palatable foods and increase satiety in overweight women (9). This means that eating spinach or arugula before a meal can help reduce overeating.

Health Impact

Health Benefits

In addition to the nutrients stated above, these leafy vegetables are also rich in antioxidants and phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Due to these and other compounds, arugula and spinach have certain favorable impacts on health.

Both foods are very healthy and nutritious. However, spinach appears to be part of more scientific studies.

Cardiovascular Health

An inverse association has been found between the intake of green leafy vegetables, such as arugula spinach, and cardiovascular disease and mortality (10).

Green leafy vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke (11).

Dietary nitrate may also contribute to the management of high blood pressure (12). Overall, dietary nitrate has been studied to reduce morbidity and mortality (2).

Diabetes

As mentioned above, both spinach and arugula are low glycemic index foods containing few sugars.

An extract of arugula leaves exhibited antidiabetic effects on cells that were responsive to insulin, which may prove helpful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (13).

Spinach consumption can help control metabolic syndrome due to its high level of antioxidants (14).

Cancer

A compound found in arugula, called erucin, has been found to have the potential to prevent cancer by inhibiting the division of tumor cells (15).

Spinach has been researched to help protect against colorectal, breast, bladder, lung, and prostate cancers (16, 17).

Downsides and Risks

Vitamin K and Drugs

Green leafy vegetables, especially spinach, are rich in vitamin K. There has been some concern that due to this fact, these vegetables may interact negatively with certain blood thinners, such as warfarin, which work by inhibiting the blood clotting function of vitamin K. However, available evidence does not support the advice to modify dietary habits when starting therapy with vitamin K antagonists (18).

Article author photo Victoria Mazmanyan
Education: General Medicine at YSMU
Last updated: June 27, 2023
Medically reviewed by Astghik Baghinyan

Infographic

Arugula vs Spinach raw infographic
Infographic link

Comparison summary table

Pay attention to the rightmost column. It displays the amounts side by side, giving a clearer understanding of the difference.
Arugula Spinach raw
Lower in Sugar ok
Lower in Saturated Fat ok
Lower in price ok
Rich in minerals ok
Rich in vitamins ok
Lower in Sodium ok
Lower in Cholesterol Equal
Lower in Glycemic Index Equal

All nutrients comparison - raw data values

Nutrient Arugula Spinach raw Opinion
Net carbs 2.05g 1.43g Arugula
Protein 2.58g 2.86g Spinach raw
Fats 0.66g 0.39g Arugula
Carbs 3.65g 3.63g Arugula
Calories 25kcal 23kcal Arugula
Fructose 0.15g Spinach raw
Sugar 2.05g 0.42g Spinach raw
Fiber 1.6g 2.2g Spinach raw
Calcium 160mg 99mg Arugula
Iron 1.46mg 2.71mg Spinach raw
Magnesium 47mg 79mg Spinach raw
Phosphorus 52mg 49mg Arugula
Potassium 369mg 558mg Spinach raw
Sodium 27mg 79mg Arugula
Zinc 0.47mg 0.53mg Spinach raw
Copper 0.076mg 0.13mg Spinach raw
Manganese 0.321mg 0.897mg Spinach raw
Selenium 0.3µg 1µg Spinach raw
Vitamin A 2373IU 9377IU Spinach raw
Vitamin A RAE 119µg 469µg Spinach raw
Vitamin E 0.43mg 2.03mg Spinach raw
Vitamin C 15mg 28.1mg Spinach raw
Vitamin B1 0.044mg 0.078mg Spinach raw
Vitamin B2 0.086mg 0.189mg Spinach raw
Vitamin B3 0.305mg 0.724mg Spinach raw
Vitamin B5 0.437mg 0.065mg Arugula
Vitamin B6 0.073mg 0.195mg Spinach raw
Folate 97µg 194µg Spinach raw
Vitamin K 108.6µg 482.9µg Spinach raw
Tryptophan 0.039mg Spinach raw
Threonine 0.122mg Spinach raw
Isoleucine 0.147mg Spinach raw
Leucine 0.223mg Spinach raw
Lysine 0.174mg Spinach raw
Methionine 0.053mg Spinach raw
Phenylalanine 0.129mg Spinach raw
Valine 0.161mg Spinach raw
Histidine 0.064mg Spinach raw
Saturated Fat 0.086g 0.063g Spinach raw
Monounsaturated Fat 0.049g 0.01g Arugula
Polyunsaturated fat 0.319g 0.165g Arugula

Which food is preferable for your diet?

ok
ok
is better in case of low diet
Arugula Spinach raw
Low Fats diet ok
Low Carbs diet ok
Low Calories diet ok
Low Glycemic Index diet Equal

Vitamins & Minerals Daily Need Coverage Score

The summary scores indicate the extent to which this food can fulfill your daily vitamin and mineral requirements if you consume 3 servings, consisting of 100 grams of each (an approximation of 3 serving sizes).
Vitamins Daily Need Coverage Score
52%
Arugula
181%
Spinach raw
Minerals Daily Need Coverage Score
28%
Arugula
45%
Spinach raw

Comparison summary

Which food is lower in Sugar?
Spinach raw
Spinach raw is lower in Sugar (difference - 1.63g)
Which food is lower in Saturated Fat?
Spinach raw
Spinach raw is lower in Saturated Fat (difference - 0.023g)
Which food is cheaper?
Spinach raw
Spinach raw is cheaper (difference - $0.2)
Which food is richer in minerals?
Spinach raw
Spinach raw is relatively richer in minerals
Which food is richer in vitamins?
Spinach raw
Spinach raw is relatively richer in vitamins
Which food contains less Sodium?
Arugula
Arugula contains less Sodium (difference - 52mg)
Which food contains less Cholesterol?
?
The foods are relatively equal in Cholesterol (0 mg)
Which food is lower in glycemic index?
?
The foods have equal glycemic indexes (32)

References

All the values for which the sources are not specified explicitly are taken from FDA’s Food Central. The exact link to the food presented on this page can be found below.

  1. Arugula - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/169387/nutrients
  2. Spinach raw - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/168462/nutrients

All the Daily Values are presented for males aged 31-50, for 2000-calorie diets.

Data provided by FoodStruct.com should be considered and used as information only. Please consult your physician before beginning any diet.