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Wheat vs Buckwheat - Health impact and Nutrition Comparison

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Article author photo Arpi Gasparyan by Arpi Gasparyan | Last updated on August 18, 2021
Education: General Medicine at YSMU
Wheat
vs
Buckwheat

Summary

Buckwheat is 3.5 times richer in vitamin B2 and two times richer in magnesium and copper; it is also richer in vitamin B5.

Wheat is four times richer in vitamin B1; it is also richer in vitamin B6, folate, selenium, iron, calcium, zinc, and dietary fiber.

Buckwheat and whole-grain wheat have more beneficial effects on health when compared to refined grains.

Introduction

Buckwheat and some types of wheat are ancient cereal grains used as the main ingredients in numerous foods. Despite the name, buckwheat is a pseudocereal and a plant, like quinoa and amaranth, whereas wheat is a cereal and a grass. This article will provide information about their nutritional differences and impacts on health.

Classification

Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) belongs to the Fagopyrum genus and Polygonaceae family. The family is called the buckwheat or knotweed family as well, and it mainly consists of herbaceous plants, trees, shrubs, and vines.

Common wheat (bread wheat, Triticum aestivum) belongs to the Triticum genus, Pooideae subfamily, and Poaceae family. Poaceae or Gramineae are commonly known as grasses and include cereal grasses, bamboos, the grasses of grassland, and lawns.

Appearance

Buckwheat has triangular-shaped grain-like seeds with a gray or dark brown rind.

Wheat grains can vary in appearance; depending on the type, they are usually oval-shaped. They can be spherical, long, narrow, and flattened too. Grains can be light yellow, white, red, and even purple and blue.

Taste and Use

Buckwheat has an intense nutty and slightly bitter flavor. When prepared, buckwheat is a bit chewy and has a soft texture.

The taste of wheat ranges from earthy to a little bitter and a little sweet.

In the culinary world, buckwheat and wheat are commonly used as flours. Buckwheat or wheat flour can be used in different types of bread, pancakes, wraps, crepes, soba noodles or pasta, waffles, muffins, chocolate chip cookies, brownies, cakes, cinnamon rolls, and many other foods.

Buckwheat as such is used in buckwheat kasha, porridge, salads, granola, sweet potato burgers, and vegan meatballs.

Varieties and Types

The two most common buckwheat varieties are common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and bitter or Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tartaricum). Tartary buckwheat is a self-fertile plant that grows well in cold climates and high altitudes. In contrast, common buckwheat depends on insects for pollination, prefers temperate climates, and grows well in lower altitudes.

Some of the most cultivated varieties of wheat are common or bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), club wheat (T. compactum). Common wheat grows under a wide range of climatic conditions and is used to produce flour for bread and cookies. Durum wheat is longer and narrower in shape and ground in semolina. Club wheat is the best choice for confectionery and cookies.

Other common and ancient varieties of wheat are spelt (T. spelta, Dinkel wheat), einkorn (T. monococcum, T. boeoticum), emmer, or hulled (T. dicoccum), and Khorasan or Kamut (T. turanicum).

Wheat is classified into six classes: hard red winter, hard red spring, soft red winter, soft white, hard white, durum. Two of their differences are geographic locations and plant dates.

There is a genetic classification for wheat as well. Depending on the chromosomes, wheat is classified into diploid (einkorn), tetraploid (durum, emmer), and hexaploid (spelt, common, and club wheat).

Wheat can be whole-grain, refined, and enriched. Whole-grain wheat contains all three portions of the grain kernel. Refined and enriched wheat are absent in two of the components; however, enriched wheat is fortified with additional nutrients.

Nutrition

The nutritional values in this article are presented for buckwheat and durum wheat.

Macronutrients and Calories

Both buckwheat and wheat are nutrient-dense and have very similar nutritional contents. Buckwheat contains only 10% water, and one percent more contains wheat.

The average serving size of buckwheat and wheat is one cup. One cup of buckwheat weighs 170g, and one cup of wheat, being a little heavier, weighs 192g.

Calories

Both of these foods are high-calorie foods. One hundred grams of buckwheat provides 343 calories, whereas a hundred grams of wheat 339 calories.

Protein and Fats

Wheat contains a little more protein when compared to buckwheat. Both of the foods contain some levels of all essential amino acids.

Buckwheat is higher in fats, even though these foods are not particularly rich in them. Buckwheat and wheat contain almost three times more monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids than saturated fatty acids.

These grains are absent in cholesterol.

Carbohydrates

Most grains are high in carbs, and buckwheat and wheat are no exceptions.

The amount of dietary fiber per 100g serving of buckwheat and buckwheat flour is 10g, covering 40% of the daily need.

Dietary fiber is not calculated for durum wheat, but it is calculated for 100g serving of hard and soft kinds of wheat, and it ranges from 12.2 to 12.7 grams, and in the unenriched, whole grains flour, it is 10.6 grams.

More than 70% of carbs found in spelt and Kamut wheat are starch.

Vitamins

Buckwheat and wheat are good sources for B complex vitamins.

Buckwheat is 3.5 richer in vitamin B2; it is also richer in vitamin B5.

On the other hand, wheat is four times richer in vitamin B1 and two times richer in vitamin B6; it is richer in folate or vitamin B9 as well.

These foods contain nearly the same amount of vitamin B3 and are absent in fat-soluble vitamins A and D and vitamin B12.

Vitamin Comparison

Vitamin comparison score is based on the number of vitamins by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
Wheat
3
:
Contains more Vitamin B1 +314.9%
Contains more Vitamin B6 +99.5%
Contains more Folate +43.3%
Contains more Vitamin B2 +251.2%
Contains more Vitamin B5 +31.9%
Equal in Vitamin B3 - 7.02
Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin K 0% 0% 0% 0% 105% 28% 127% 57% 97% 33% 0% 0%
Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin K 0% 0% 0% 0% 26% 99% 132% 74% 49% 23% 0% 0%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +314.9%
Contains more Vitamin B6 +99.5%
Contains more Folate +43.3%
Contains more Vitamin B2 +251.2%
Contains more Vitamin B5 +31.9%
Equal in Vitamin B3 - 7.02

Minerals

Buckwheat is two times richer in magnesium and copper. It also contains two times less sodium.

Wheat contains over 1.5 times more iron, calcium, and zinc and almost 1.5 times more phosphorus.

Durum wheat and Kamut wheat contain ten times more selenium than buckwheat and over 3.5 times more when compared to wheat flour.

These foods contain similar amounts of potassium.

Mineral Comparison

Mineral comparison score is based on the number of minerals by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
Contains more Calcium +88.9%
Contains more Iron +60%
Contains more Phosphorus +46.4%
Contains more Zinc +73.3%
Contains more Magnesium +60.4%
Contains less Sodium -50%
Contains more Copper +98.9%
Equal in Potassium - 460
Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper 11% 132% 103% 218% 39% 1% 114% 185%
Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper 6% 83% 166% 149% 41% 1% 66% 367%
Contains more Calcium +88.9%
Contains more Iron +60%
Contains more Phosphorus +46.4%
Contains more Zinc +73.3%
Contains more Magnesium +60.4%
Contains less Sodium -50%
Contains more Copper +98.9%
Equal in Potassium - 460

Glycemic Index

The glycemic index values for these foods differ depending on the variety and cooking methods.

The glycemic index of whole wheat kernels is 30±9, which is considered low. Precooked and cooked durum wheat has a glycemic index of 50±5. Different types of pasta made from durum wheat have low or moderate glycemic index values.

On average, bread made from white wheat or whole wheat flour has a high glycemic index value, but it can also be moderate. Spelt wheat bread predominantly has a moderate glycemic index (1).

The glycemic index of boiled buckwheat groats is 45. You can find more information about it here.

Acidity

The pH value of whole wheat is 5.8, making it moderately acidic (2). The pH value for whole wheat bread falls from 5.47 to 5.85 (3).

Buckwheat has a pH value of 6.8, making its acidity close to neutral (2).

A different way to look at acidity is by calculating the potential renal acid load or PRAL value, which shows the food's acidifying effect on the body.

The positive PRAL values of 3.4 for buckwheat and 12.3 for wheat shows that these foods are acidic. The higher PRAL value of wheat means that it is more acid-producing.

Weight Loss & Diets

Even though buckwheat and wheat are nutrient-dense and high in calories, they can still be part of the weight-loss diets for being rich in complex B vitamins, minerals, proteins, fiber, antioxidants, and low in fats.

Between wheat and buckwheat, wheat is the preferred choice for a low-calorie, low-carb, and low-fat diet.

Bread, pasta, cereals made from whole-grain wheat, and buckwheat can be a good addition to the DASH diet.

Whole-grain wheat, bulgur wheat, and buckwheat are included in the Mediterranean diet.

During the attack phase of the Dukan Diet, 1 tbsp of wheat bran can be used to avoid constipation.

Buckwheat and whole wheat can be consumed during the anti-inflammatory diet.

Unlike wheat, buckwheat can be consumed during a gluten-free diet.

Health Impact

Buckwheat and some types of whole wheat, such as spelt, Kamut, bulgur wheat, or cracked wheat, are considered superfoods. A superfood is a nutrient-rich food with health-promoting properties.

Products containing whole wheat are superior to the ones with refined wheat. Refined grains lack dietary fiber, antioxidants, some minerals, and vitamins.

Health Benefits

Cardiovascular Health

The increased intake of buckwheat may reduce cardiovascular disease risk markers, as well as glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides (5).

Buckwheat is rich in flavonoids, and among other beneficial effects on health, they are known to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease (6).

Research on neonatal rats has shown that rutin, a flavonoid found in buckwheat, can inhibit angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of myocardial cells (7).

Buckwheat seed consumption may prevent hypertension as well (8, 9).

Intake of whole grains has been inversely associated with the risks of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and all-cause mortality rates (10, 11, 12).

Diabetes

Research on mice has shown that rutin has therapeutic effects on reducing blood sugar and cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetic mice. It has been shown to have specific protective effects on mice's spleen and liver too (13,14). Rutin content in Tartary buckwheat is much higher when compared to common buckwheat.

Higher consumption of whole grains, such as whole-wheat bread, cereals, wheat germ, bran, but not refined grains, is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (15, 16).

Insoluble fiber has protective effects against type 2 diabetes, and the possible mechanisms leading to these effects may be improved glucose tolerance, reduced inflammation, and improved immune response (17).

Digestive Health

Buckwheat and buckwheat enriched products contain flavonoids (bioactive compounds) that exert an anti-inflammatory effect on the colon cells responsible for the inflammatory response in the intestine. A study on this topic suggests that buckwheat consumption may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (18).

Resistant starch in Tartary buckwheat may improve imbalanced gut microbiota and increase short-chain fatty acids synthesis (19). Another study indicates that buckwheat honey supports the growth of Bifidobacteria and restrains the pathogenic bacterium in the intestinal tract (20).

Prebiotics in whole-grain wheat have similar effects on gut microbiota. They selectively stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, increasing the natural resistance of the host's body to invading pathogens (21, 22).

Dietary fiber from wheat bran increases stool bulk and softens it, making it easier to pass and increases the frequency of bowel movements; thus, it can be used to treat constipation and uncomplicated diverticular disease (23, 24). However, bran is only partially effective in those with chronic constipation, showing lower stool output and slower transit time (25).

Hepatic Health

By improving lipid metabolism, common buckwheat can potentially prevent high-fat content in blood and as well fatty liver disease (26).

Kamut wheat and its ethanolic extract improve insulin resistance and lipid metabolism and improve liver profile in fatty liver disease (27, 28).

Thyroid Function

The thyroid gland has the highest content of selenium, which is high in wheat. In mild Graves disease, selenium intake might lead to faster remission of hyperthyroidism and improve life quality. Trials of selenium intake in patients with autoimmune/Hashimoto thyroiditis resulted in decreased autoantibody titer without apparent improvements of symptoms.

Observational studies have indicated that low selenium status is a risk factor for goiter (swelling of the thyroid gland) (29,30).

Cancer

The anticarcinogenic activity of buckwheat is due to its antioxidant activity and the inhibition of cancer cells growth. Results of studies have indicated that Tartary buckwheat bran shows antitumor activity for human breast cancer cells (31). Buckwheat shows anti-tumoral activity on liver cancer cells as well (32).

Increased intake of dietary fiber, specifically cereal fiber and whole grains, is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (33).

Reduced risk of stomach, esophageal, breast cancers is associated with consumption of whole grains (34, 35).

Downsides and Risks

Gluten Related Disorders

Gluten is a group of proteins in cereal grains and products made from these grains. Consumption of wheat for people with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity is likely to trigger gluten-related disorders, such as Celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia (an autoimmune disease), or other neurological disorders.

Buckwheat does not contain gluten proteins and can be consumed as a great alternative to wheat.

Allergy

Wheat allergy is more common in children and can cause severe reactions such as anaphylaxis. Inhalation of wheat can cause asthma or rhinitis in workers with repetitive exposure to wheat flour. Wheat allergy can cause eosinophilic esophagitis or gastritis as well (36).

Buckwheat allergy may lead to allergic reactions from urticaria to wheezing and anaphylaxis (37).

Type 1 diabetes

Gluten intake might affect type 1 diabetes development. A study on animal models has shown a cereal-based diet may promote the development of type 1 diabetes (38).

Along with the previous, type 1 diabetes and Celiac disease often occur together, and a gluten-free diet has shown some beneficial effects on symptoms (39).

References

  1. https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/114/5/1625/6320814
  2. http://www.nphsystem.guide/grain_food_values.htm
  3. pH values of foods and food products
  4. https://www.myplate.gov/eat-healthy/grains
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986499/
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180151/
  7. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25587324/
  8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17645626/
  9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32351304/
  10. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28155258/
  11. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27798329/
  12. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27301975/
  13. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31250605/
  14. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27279072/
  15. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32641435/
  16. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24158434/
  17. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29191432/
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597957/
  19. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32724589/
  20. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32184894/
  21. https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/5/4/1417/
  22. Gastrointestinal effects of prebiotics
  23. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6281350/
  24. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7494680/
  25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2545244/pdf/bmj00274-0031.pdf
  26. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32383865/
  27. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29652567/
  28. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30414175/
  29. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0311-6
  30. Selenium and the thyroid
  31. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27942664/
  32. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25901645/
  33. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22074852/
  34. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31374888/
  35. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271550/
  36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4743586/
  37. Buckwheat Allergy: An Emerging Clinical Problem in Europe
  38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4119241/
  39. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4185872/
Article author photo Arpi Gasparyan
Education: General Medicine at YSMU
Last updated: August 18, 2021

Infographic

Wheat vs Buckwheat infographic
Infographic link

Comparison summary table

Pay attention to the most right column. It shows the amounts side by side, making it easier to realize the amount of difference.
Wheat Buckwheat
Lower in Saturated Fat ok
Lower in glycemic index ok
Lower in price ok
Lower in Sodium ok
Lower in Sugar Equal
Lower in Cholesterol Equal
Rich in minerals Equal
Rich in vitamins Equal

All nutrients comparison - raw data values

Nutrient Wheat Buckwheat Opinion
Net carbs 71.13g 61.5g Wheat
Protein 13.68g 13.25g Wheat
Fats 2.47g 3.4g Buckwheat
Carbs 71.13g 71.5g Buckwheat
Calories 339kcal 343kcal Buckwheat
Starch g g
Fructose g g
Sugar g g
Fiber g 10g Buckwheat
Calcium 34mg 18mg Wheat
Iron 3.52mg 2.2mg Wheat
Magnesium 144mg 231mg Buckwheat
Phosphorus 508mg 347mg Wheat
Potassium 431mg 460mg Buckwheat
Sodium 2mg 1mg Buckwheat
Zinc 4.16mg 2.4mg Wheat
Copper 0.553mg 1.1mg Buckwheat
Vitamin A 0IU 0IU
Vitamin E mg mg
Vitamin D 0IU 0IU
Vitamin D 0µg 0µg
Vitamin C 0mg 0mg
Vitamin B1 0.419mg 0.101mg Wheat
Vitamin B2 0.121mg 0.425mg Buckwheat
Vitamin B3 6.738mg 7.02mg Buckwheat
Vitamin B5 0.935mg 1.233mg Buckwheat
Vitamin B6 0.419mg 0.21mg Wheat
Folate 43µg 30µg Wheat
Vitamin B12 0µg 0µg
Vitamin K µg µg
Tryptophan 0.176mg 0.192mg Buckwheat
Threonine 0.366mg 0.506mg Buckwheat
Isoleucine 0.533mg 0.498mg Wheat
Leucine 0.934mg 0.832mg Wheat
Lysine 0.303mg 0.672mg Buckwheat
Methionine 0.221mg 0.172mg Wheat
Phenylalanine 0.681mg 0.52mg Wheat
Valine 0.594mg 0.678mg Buckwheat
Histidine 0.322mg 0.309mg Wheat
Cholesterol 0mg 0mg
Trans Fat g g
Saturated Fat 0.454g 0.741g Wheat
Monounsaturated Fat 0.344g 1.04g Buckwheat
Polyunsaturated fat 0.978g 1.039g Buckwheat

Which food is preferable for your diet?

ok
ok
is better in case of low diet
Wheat Buckwheat
Low Fats diet ok
Low Carbs diet ok
Low Calories diet ok
Low glycemic index diet ok

People also compare

Vitamin and Mineral Summary Scores

The summary score is calculated by summing up the daily values contained in 300 grams of the product. Obviously the more the food fulfills human daily needs, the more the summary score is.
Vitamin Summary Score
37
Wheat
33
Buckwheat
Mineral Summary Score
100
Wheat
109
Buckwheat

Macronutrients Comparison

Macronutrient comparison charts compare the amount of protein, total fats, and total carbohydrates in 300 grams of the food. The displayed values show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of food.
Protein
82%
Wheat
80%
Buckwheat
Carbohydrates
71%
Wheat
72%
Buckwheat
Fats
11%
Wheat
16%
Buckwheat

Comparison summary

Which food is lower in Saturated Fat?
Wheat
Wheat is lower in Saturated Fat (difference - 0.287g)
Which food is lower in glycemic index?
Wheat
Wheat is lower in glycemic index (difference - 4)
Which food is cheaper?
Wheat
Wheat is cheaper (difference - $2.2)
Which food contains less Sodium?
Buckwheat
Buckwheat contains less Sodium (difference - 1mg)
Which food contains less Sugar?
?
The foods are relatively equal in Sugar ( g)
Which food contains less Cholesterol?
?
The foods are relatively equal in Cholesterol (0 mg)
Which food is richer in minerals?
?
It cannot be stated which food is richer in vitamins. See the charts below for detailed information. See the charts below for detailed information. See the charts below for detailed information.
Which food is richer in vitamins?
?
It cannot be stated which food is richer in vitamins. See the charts below for detailed information. See the charts below for detailed information. See the charts below for detailed information.

References

The source of all the nutrient values on the page (excluding the main article the sources for which are presented separately if present) is the USDA's FoodCentral. The exact links to the foods presented on this page can be found below.

  1. Wheat - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/169721/nutrients
  2. Buckwheat - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/170286/nutrients

All the Daily Values are presented for males aged 31-50, for 2000 calorie diets.

Data provided by FoodStruct.com should be considered and used as information only. Please consult your physician before beginning any diet.