Honey vs. Maple syrup — Health Impact and Nutrition Comparison
Honey and maple syrup are healthier options as sweeteners instead of refined sugars. Honey contains more carbohydrates, protein, and calories, while maple syrup contains more fats. Honey has a higher glycemic index. It is richer in vitamin C, vitamins B3, B5, and B6, whereas maple syrup is higher in vitamins B1 and B2. Honey has higher levels of iron, copper, and phosphorus, while maple syrup contains more calcium, potassium, magnesium, and zinc. Honey is lower in sodium.
Both honey and maple syrup may promote health when consumed in moderation. Increased honey and maple syrup consumption may result in adverse health outcomes due to their high sugar content.
Table of contents
- Health Impact
- Cardiovascular Health
- Interaction With Medications
- Honey on Convulsions
- Dental Caries
Honey and maple syrup are two of the most popular sweeteners in the world. There’s no question that these two are healthier than cane sugar, but which one is the better choice? Both are natural sources of sugars, certain minerals, and vitamins. Here we will discuss their specific nutritional compositions and what effects they have on human health.
How It’s Made
As is common knowledge, honey is made by foraging bees, as well as some insects of similar species. Bees in nature produce honey to use in winter or in times of scarcity. Firstly, bees, with the help of their long tubular mouthpart, extract the nectar in a liquid form from the flowering plants and store it in their extra stomach, also called the “crop.” In the bee’s stomach, the nectar changes composition, mixing with enzymes that change the texture and storage time of the honey. Honeybees later return to the beehive and pass the honey to the next bee by regurgitating it into the other bee’s mouth. This goes on until the honey reaches the honeycomb. Finally, bees circulate air in the honeycomb with their wings to evaporate water, condense the honey, and later seal the honeycomb with beeswax (1). The taste and texture of honey can differ depending on the species of flower from which the nectar was collected.
On the other hand, maple syrup does not require the help of insects and is acquired from trees, which is why maple syrup fits the vegan diet while honey does not. Maple syrup is made from tapping maple trees. The most common trees that people get maple syrup from are the sugar or rock trees (Acer saccharum) and the black maple (Acer nigrum), although sometimes the red maple (Acer rubrum) is also used. In spring, these trees produce a sugary sap underneath the bark. The sap is collected through taps that get drilled into the tree and stored in tanks. Later the sap is evaporated to condense it and achieve the final maple syrup (2).
Depending on storage conditions, honey can change its color and texture, and often crystallize. However, these are natural changes and do not mean the honey has gone bad. Honey does not have an expiration date (3).
Maple syrup, due to its density, is more susceptible to growing mold. An unopened bottle of maple syrup can be kept indefinitely; however, you can use it for about a year after opening it. Unopened bottles of maple syrup should be kept in a dry, cold area. After it is opened, storing it in a refrigerator is advised (4).
Honey may contain bacteria that cause infant botulism, so it is not allowed for children younger than 12 months to consume honey. It is safe for children that are one year of age or older (5).
It is also advised to limit the consumption of honey to 6 tablespoons (25 grams) a day for women and 9 tablespoons (38 grams) for men due to the high sugar concentration (6).
It is better to avoid giving babies maple syrup as well due to the high sugar concentration.
The nutritional values are presented for honey and maple syrup.
Macronutrients and Calories
100g of honey contains more calories, proteins, and over 15g more carbohydrates, but it does not contain fats. Maple syrup contains insignificant amounts of fats.
One serving of honey is one tablespoon, equivalent to 21g of honey, whereas a serving of maple syrup is a quarter of a cup equaling 83g.
However, the significant difference in the average serving sizes of honey and maple syrup should be taken into consideration.
100g of honey provides more calories than maple syrup: honey provides 304 calories, whereas maple syrup provides 260.
Protein & Fats
Both honey and maple syrup contain trace amounts of protein and fats: less than 0.5g in 100g of each product.
Honey is higher in carbs than maple syrup. 100g of honey contains 82.4g of carbs, while maple syrup contains 67.04g. Carbs in maple syrup are mostly sucrose, whereas most carbs in honey are glucose and fructose.
Honey contains small amounts of maltose and galactose as well.
Carbohydrate type comparison
Honey is richer in vitamins B3, B5, and B6 and also contains vitamin C and folate, while maple syrup does not. Conversely, there is a vitamin in maple syrup that isn’t present in honey: vitamin B1. Maple syrup is also higher in vitamin B2.
Both foods entirely lack vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin K, and vitamin B12.
Honey is richer in iron, copper, and phosphorus. On the other hand, maple syrup contains more manganese, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and potassium. Honey is lower in sodium.
Maple syrup is very high in manganese. A 100g of maple syrup covers 125% of the daily recommended manganese intake for men and 160% for women.
Manganese is a cofactor for many enzymes participating in metabolism, ROS scavenging, bone formation, reproduction, and more.
Both maple syrup and honey express intermediate antioxidant abilities that famously have the potential to protect cells from oxidative damage, having a positive effect on cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other conditions (8).
Darker maple syrup was found to have stronger antioxidant abilities when compared to clear maple syrup (9). One of the antioxidant compounds found in maple syrup is called glucitol-core containing gallotannin (GCG). These are polyphenols that have free radical scavenging abilities (10).
Not much is known about the specific compounds that are responsible for honey’s antioxidant abilities. It is most likely due to its phenolic and flavonoid acid composition. Different kinds of honey from various floral sources have different antioxidant capacities due to their individual phenolic profiles. Other compounds responsible for the antioxidant capacity may be peptides, organic acids, enzymes, Maillard reaction products, and potentially other minor components (11). Whatever the mechanism is, honey has been proven to have the ability to protect humans from oxidative stress (12).
Long-term consumption of honey has the potential to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. It has been shown to decrease the total level of cholesterols and low-density lipoproteins in overweight individuals. Honey also decreases blood levels of C-reactive protein, which is associated with cardiac risk factors and inflammation (13).
However, all added sugars can play a role in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias; therefore, honey and maple syrup should be consumed in moderation (14).
Both honey and maple syrup are naturally high in sugars. Maple syrup has a low glycemic index of 54, while honey’s glycemic index of 61 is slightly higher, making honey a moderate glycemic index food.
In one study, honey decreased triglycerides in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and reduced low-density lipoproteins in patients with hyperlipidemia; however, artificial honey had the opposite effects. Honey also reduced homocysteine and C-reactive protein in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Compared to sucrose and dextrose, honey caused a lower elevation of plasma glucose levels (15).
Another study concluded that long-term consumption of honey might positively affect the body weight and blood lipid levels of diabetic patients. However, it may also increase levels of hemoglobin A, so cautious consumption of honey is advised in patients with diabetes (16).
Honey also increases zinc and copper serum levels which are important for insulin and glucose metabolism (13).
The previously mentioned antioxidant compound found in maple syrup, named glucitol-core containing gallotannin (GCG), also has potential antidiabetic α-glucosidase inhibitory and antiglycation properties (10). Other chemicals maple syrup contains that might help its antidiabetic properties are polyphenolic lignans and phytohormone abscisic acid and its derivatives (17).
Studies have found maple syrup to be a healthier substitute as a sweetener instead of sucrose due to a lower glycemic index (18). Maple syrup might also have the ability to inhibit glucose absorption from the small intestine, preventing elevation of plasma glucose levels, therefore potentially helping prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (19).
In conclusion, honey and maple syrup are both better options to use instead of processed sugars; however, the high sugar content means they have to be used with caution and moderation.
Even though honey and maple syrup are high in sugars, which are thought to be carcinogenic, they have potential anticancer qualities due to other chemicals they contain.
One study has found an inverse association between maple syrup and colorectal cancer. Maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion by suppressing AKT activation, thus becoming a potentially suitable phytomedicine for colorectal cancer, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy (20).
Maple syrup extracts and pure maple syrup, the dark ones, in particular, have shown in vitro antiproliferative activity against prostate, lung, breast, and colorectal cancer cells (9).
Honey can potentially be used as a chemopreventive and therapeutic treatment against cancer. It is suggested that honey can inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest (21).
Honey has been studied to be effective against bladder, breast, cervical, colorectal, renal, prostate, endometrial cancers, leukemia, and others (22, 23, 24, 25, 26).
Interaction With Medications
One study has found a strong synergistic interaction between maple syrup extract and the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and carbenicillin. Maple syrup extract has also repressed antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial virulence (27).
Honey may also have a synergistic effect with the antibiotics oxacillin, tetracycline, imipenem, and mupirocin (28).
Honey & Blood Thinners
Honey is studied to slow blood clotting; thus, consuming honey while on anticoagulants (blood thinners) may increase the risk of bleeding and bruising (29, 30).
Honey & Phenytoin (Dilantin)
Research suggests honey might increase phenytoin absorption, enhancing its effects and side effects (31).
Honey on Convulsions
Honey antioxidants have been studied to have beneficial effects on various neurological disorders.
Various antioxidants in honey, such as quercetin, luteolin, naringenin, ferulic acid, gluconate, etc., have been shown to have neuroprotective effects and reduce the severity and intensity of epileptic seizures and epilepsy-associated depression (32, 33).
Allergy to honey is very rare; however, there have been such described cases. The main allergens causing this allergy are thought to be pollen proteins (Compositae pollen) from the plants and glandular proteins produced by bees. Propolis, which can be found in beeswax, is also known as a contact allergen (34). Symptoms of a honey allergy can occur when the allergic person consumes or touches honey. These may include oral allergy syndrome, itching, swelling and redness of the mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rashes, and other symptoms.
Maple syrup allergy is also quite uncommon but can occur. People who are allergic to maple syrup have a higher chance of being allergic to the pollen or sap of the maple tree. Symptoms are similar to that of honey allergy.
Increased sugar consumption is a risk factor for dental caries (tooth decay) and enamel erosion. The sugars are digested by oral bacteria, leading to mechanisms causing tooth decay (35).
Interestingly, several studies have found that honey has potential anti-cariogenic effects and may also reduce the risk of gingivitis and other oral problems. However, further studies are required to confirm these findings (36, 37).
Milk, sugary products, and beverages are common and well-known causes of acne. Higher honey, maple syrup, or other sugar consumption may lead to serum insulin and IGF-1 elevations, increasing androgen production and subsequent acne development (38, 39, 40).
Comparison summary table
|Lower in Sugar|
|Lower in Glycemic Index|
|Lower in Sodium|
|Lower in Saturated Fat|
|Lower in price|
|Lower in Cholesterol||Equal|
|Rich in minerals||Equal|
|Rich in vitamins||Equal|
All nutrients comparison - raw data values
Which food is preferable for your diet?
|Low Fats diet|
|Low Carbs diet|
|Low Calories diet|
|Low Glycemic Index diet|
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Vitamins & Minerals Daily Need Coverage Score
The source of all the nutrient values on the page (excluding the main article the sources for which are presented separately if present) is the USDA's FoodCentral. The exact links to the foods presented on this page can be found below.
- Honey - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/169640/nutrients
- Maple syrup - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/169661/nutrients
All the Daily Values are presented for males aged 31-50, for 2000-calorie diets.