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Spinach vs Arugula - Health impact and Nutrition Comparison

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Article author photo Victoria Mazmanyan by Victoria Mazmanyan | Last updated on May 10, 2021
Education: General Medicine at YSMU
Spinach
vs
Arugula

Summary

The foods are not radically different, having similar calories, macronutrient content, and glycemic index; however, spinach contains three times more vitamins A, E, and K, as well as more iron, potassium, and magnesium. This makes spinach a better choice in terms of nutrition.

While arugula and spinach both have numerous beneficial effects on health, spinach has been studied more extensively in the area of health.

Introduction

We all know that leafy vegetables are good for our health but are some greens better than others? This article will compare two greens - arugula and spinach - to see what nutritions they provide us with and how they impact our bodies.

Classification

Arugula has many names, including salad rocket, garden rocket, eruca, rucola, colewort, and, scientifically, Eruca vesicaria, Eruca sativa, or Brassica eruca. It belongs to the Eruca genus and the Brassicaceae family. Arugula shares this family with broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussel sprouts, and many others.

Spinach or Spinacia oleracea belongs to the Spinacia genus and the Amaranthaceae family. This family also includes vegetables, such as garden beets and chard, as well as pseudocereal quinoa.

Appearance

Arugula and spinach are easy to differentiate from each other by appearance. Spinach has smaller rounded triangular leaves, while arugula leaves are pinnate shaped with lobes on each side.

Arugula leaves also tend to be darker in color when compared to spinach.

Taste and Use

Arugula is believed to have originated from the Mediterranean region: Morocco, Portugal, Lebanon, and Syria. It’s either eaten in the raw form like in Turkey, Egypt, Brazil, and Cyprus, as a side dish or as an ingredient. For example, it is often added to pizza in Italy. Spinach, on the other hand, comes from ancient Persia. It is used in raw, fresh form in burgers and salads, often to replace lettuce.

Arugula is famous for its peppery and slightly bitter taste. Spinach, however, has a much milder flavor, becoming more robust as it is cooked.

Varieties

Based on the cultivar, the nutritional and physical properties of these greens can change.

The three main types of spinach are savoy, semi-savoy, and smooth-leafed spinach. Savoy spinach is also known as curly-leaf spinach. This variety usually has crispier leaves and is easier to cook with. The most popular varieties of savoy spinach are Regiment and Bloomsdale.

Semi-savoy spinach, as the name suggests, is somewhere in between savoy and smooth spinach. It has crispier leaves when compared to smooth-leafed spinach but is easier to clean than savoy spinach. The two common types of semi-savoy spinach are Tyee and Catalana.

And finally, the most popular varieties of smooth-leafed spinach are Space and Red Cardinal spinach.

Arugula also has a wide variety of cultivars with differing appearances, tastes, and nutritional values. The two primary commercially available groups of arugula are wild and common arugula. Wild arugula tends to have a more pungent taste.

Some of the widely known common varieties of arugula are Astro, Sylvetta, and Apollo.

Nutrition

The nutritional values are presented for raw arugula and spinach.

Macronutrients and Calories

As can be easily seen in the visual nutrition comparison below, these foods have very similar nutritional contents. The macronutrient structure is nearly the same. Both arugula and spinach consist of 91% water, spinach being only a little denser.

However, these two vegetables have a drastically different average serving size. One serving size of arugula is considered to be one leaf, weighing only 2g, whereas one average serving size of spinach is one cup, equal to 30g.

Calories

Arugula and spinach are very similar in calorie content, both being very low in calories.

A 100g serving of arugula contains 25 calories, only two more calories when compared to spinach.

Protein and Fats

Leafy vegetables are not particularly rich in most macronutrients. However, spinach contains a little more protein when compared to arugula.

The protein quality in both of these vegetables is high, as they contain some levels of all essential amino acids.

Arugula and spinach are very low in fats. Nevertheless, arugula has a slightly higher content of fats. The predominant fats found in these greens are polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Naturally, arugula and spinach contain no cholesterol.

Carbohydrates

Arugula and spinach contain nearly the same amount of carbohydrates. However, arugula is higher in sugar, while spinach contains more dietary fiber.

The little sugar content of spinach is made up of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and galactose.

Vitamins

There are relatively notable differences in vitamin content. Arugula contains five times more Vitamin B5, while spinach has around three times more Vitamin A, E, and K.

Spinach is the winner in this category, as it contains significantly higher levels of all vitamins except for vitamin B5. These include vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, and folate.

Spinach and arugula are both completely absent in vitamin B12 and vitamin D.

Vitamin Comparison

Vitamin comparison score is based on the number of vitamins by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
:
Contains more Vitamin A +295.2%
Contains more Vitamin E +372.1%
Contains more Vitamin C +87.3%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +77.3%
Contains more Vitamin B2 +119.8%
Contains more Vitamin B3 +137.4%
Contains more Vitamin B6 +167.1%
Contains more Folate +100%
Contains more Vitamin K +344.7%
Contains more Vitamin B5 +572.3%
Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin K 563% 41% 0% 94% 20% 44% 14% 4% 45% 146% 0% 1208%
Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin K 143% 9% 0% 50% 11% 20% 6% 27% 17% 73% 0% 272%
Contains more Vitamin A +295.2%
Contains more Vitamin E +372.1%
Contains more Vitamin C +87.3%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +77.3%
Contains more Vitamin B2 +119.8%
Contains more Vitamin B3 +137.4%
Contains more Vitamin B6 +167.1%
Contains more Folate +100%
Contains more Vitamin K +344.7%
Contains more Vitamin B5 +572.3%

Minerals

Most minerals appear in approximately the same amounts. It’s important to mention that both are quite high in potassium, calcium, and magnesium.

That being said, spinach is relatively richer in iron, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese, selenium, and choline.

Arugula, on the other hand, is higher in calcium and phosphorus. Arugula is also lower in sodium.

Mineral Comparison

Mineral comparison score is based on the number of minerals by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
Contains more Iron +85.6%
Contains more Magnesium +68.1%
Contains more Potassium +51.2%
Contains more Zinc +12.8%
Contains more Copper +71.1%
Contains more Calcium +61.6%
Contains less Sodium -65.8%
Equal in Phosphorus - 52
Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper 30% 102% 57% 22% 50% 11% 15% 44%
Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper 48% 55% 34% 23% 33% 4% 13% 26%
Contains more Iron +85.6%
Contains more Magnesium +68.1%
Contains more Potassium +51.2%
Contains more Zinc +12.8%
Contains more Copper +71.1%
Contains more Calcium +61.6%
Contains less Sodium -65.8%
Equal in Phosphorus - 52

Nitrates

Leafy green vegetables are rich in natural compounds called dietary nitrates, which are partially responsible for various beneficial effects of these greens, such as improving vascular functions (1, 2).

Arugula is over four times richer in dietary nitrates when compared to spinach (2).

The nitrate content can be found in different amounts depending on the seasonal period. Studies have shown the nitrate content of leafy green vegetables to be higher in autumn (3),

Glycemic Index

An exact number has not yet been calculated for the glycemic index of arugula and spinach. However, dark green leafy vegetables are considered to have a low glycemic index due to their low sugar content (4).

One study has shown spinach consumption to lower the glycemic response of a meal. At the same time, another study found that spinach only improves insulin sensitivity but has no effect on blood glucose levels (5, 6).

Acidity

The pH value of arugula is estimated to be around 6.9, making the acidity of arugula neutral (7).

Spinach, however, has a slightly more acidic pH value that can fall anywhere from 5.38 to 7.18, depending on the cooking method (8).

An alternative way of looking at the acidity of foods is the potential renal acid load or the PRAL value. This value demonstrates how much acid or base the given food produces inside the organism.

The PRAL value of arugula and spinach are -7.9 and -11.8, respectively. This shows us that spinach is more base-producing when compared to arugula.

Weight Loss & Diets

Green leafy vegetables famously fit well into weight-loss diets.

Arugula and spinach are no exceptions, being low-calorie foods. A hundred gram serving of these vegetables provides 25 calories or less. Green leafy vegetables are also a good source of dietary fiber and micronutrients.

Between the two vegetables, spinach is the preferred choice during low-calorie, low-fat, and low-carb diets. However, both arugula and spinach are low in calories, fats, and carbohydrates.

Green leafy vegetables, especially spinach, are rich in a compound called thylakoid. Thylakoid has been found to reduce hunger and cravings for palatable foods and increase satiety in overweight women (9). This means that eating spinach or arugula before a meal can help reduce overeating.

Health Impact

Health Benefits

In addition to the nutrients stated above, these leafy vegetables are also rich in antioxidants and phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Due to these and other compounds, arugula and spinach have certain favorable impacts on health.

Both foods are very healthy and nutritious. However, spinach appears to be part of more scientific studies.

Cardiovascular Health

An inverse association has been found between the intake of green leafy vegetables, such as arugula spinach, and cardiovascular disease and mortality (10).

Green leafy vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke (11).

Dietary nitrate may also contribute to the management of high blood pressure (12). Overall, dietary nitrate has been studied to reduce morbidity and mortality (2).

Diabetes

As mentioned above, both spinach and arugula are low glycemic index foods containing few sugars.

An extract of arugula leaves exhibited antidiabetic effects on cells that were responsive to insulin, which may prove helpful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (13).

Spinach consumption can help control metabolic syndrome due to its high level of antioxidants (14).

Cancer

A compound found in arugula, called erucin, has been found to have the potential to prevent cancer by inhibiting the division of tumor cells (15).

Spinach has been researched to help protect against colorectal, breast, bladder, lung, and prostate cancers (16, 17).

Downsides and Risks

Vitamin K and Drugs

Green leafy vegetables, especially spinach, are rich in vitamin K. There has been some concern that due to this fact, these vegetables may interact negatively with certain blood-thinners, such as warfarin, which work by inhibiting the blood clotting function of vitamin K. However, available evidence does not support the advice to modify dietary habits when starting therapy with vitamin K antagonists (18).

Sources.

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0891584914004407
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116056/
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5412236/
  4. Dark Green Leafy Vegetables
  5. HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF SPINACH AND FENUGREEK LEAVES IN TYPE 2 DIABETICS
  6. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270676832
  7. http://www.nphsystem.guide/vegetable_values.htm
  8. https://www.webpal.org/SAFE/aaarecovery/2_food_storage/Processing/lacf-phs.htm
  9. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019566631500197X
  10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837313/
  11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986475/
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4525132/
  13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6130626/
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5534315/
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065051/
  16. https://www.aicr.org/cancer-prevention/food-facts/spinach/
  17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3209415/
  18. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998867/
Article author photo Victoria Mazmanyan
Education: General Medicine at YSMU
Last updated: May 10, 2021

Infographic

Spinach vs Arugula infographic
Infographic link

Comparison summary table

Pay attention to the most right column. It shows the amounts side by side, making it easier to realize the amount of difference.
Spinach Arugula
Lower in Sugar ok
Lower in Saturated Fat ok
Lower in price ok
Rich in minerals ok
Rich in vitamins ok
Lower in Sodium ok
Lower in Cholesterol Equal
Lower in glycemic index Equal

All nutrients comparison - raw data values

Nutrient Spinach Arugula Opinion
Net carbs 1.43g 2.05g Arugula
Protein 2.86g 2.58g Spinach
Fats 0.39g 0.66g Arugula
Carbs 3.63g 3.65g Arugula
Calories 23kcal 25kcal Arugula
Starch g g
Fructose 0.15g g Spinach
Sugar 0.42g 2.05g Spinach
Fiber 2.2g 1.6g Spinach
Calcium 99mg 160mg Arugula
Iron 2.71mg 1.46mg Spinach
Magnesium 79mg 47mg Spinach
Phosphorus 49mg 52mg Arugula
Potassium 558mg 369mg Spinach
Sodium 79mg 27mg Arugula
Zinc 0.53mg 0.47mg Spinach
Copper 0.13mg 0.076mg Spinach
Vitamin A 9377IU 2373IU Spinach
Vitamin E 2.03mg 0.43mg Spinach
Vitamin D 0IU 0IU
Vitamin D 0µg 0µg
Vitamin C 28.1mg 15mg Spinach
Vitamin B1 0.078mg 0.044mg Spinach
Vitamin B2 0.189mg 0.086mg Spinach
Vitamin B3 0.724mg 0.305mg Spinach
Vitamin B5 0.065mg 0.437mg Arugula
Vitamin B6 0.195mg 0.073mg Spinach
Folate 194µg 97µg Spinach
Vitamin B12 0µg 0µg
Vitamin K 482.9µg 108.6µg Spinach
Tryptophan 0.039mg mg Spinach
Threonine 0.122mg mg Spinach
Isoleucine 0.147mg mg Spinach
Leucine 0.223mg mg Spinach
Lysine 0.174mg mg Spinach
Methionine 0.053mg mg Spinach
Phenylalanine 0.129mg mg Spinach
Valine 0.161mg mg Spinach
Histidine 0.064mg mg Spinach
Cholesterol 0mg 0mg
Trans Fat 0g 0g
Saturated Fat 0.063g 0.086g Spinach
Monounsaturated Fat 0.01g 0.049g Arugula
Polyunsaturated fat 0.165g 0.319g Arugula

Which food is preferable for your diet?

ok
ok
is better in case of low diet
Spinach Arugula
Low Fats diet ok
Low Carbs diet ok
Low Calories diet ok
Low glycemic index diet Equal

People also compare

Vitamin and Mineral Summary Scores

The summary score is calculated by summing up the daily values contained in 300 grams of the product. Obviously the more the food fulfills human daily needs, the more the summary score is.
Vitamin Summary Score
181
Spinach
52
Arugula
Mineral Summary Score
41
Spinach
29
Arugula

Macronutrients Comparison

Macronutrient comparison charts compare the amount of protein, total fats, and total carbohydrates in 300 grams of the food. The displayed values show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of food.
Protein
17%
Spinach
15%
Arugula
Carbohydrates
4%
Spinach
4%
Arugula
Fats
2%
Spinach
3%
Arugula

Comparison summary

Which food is lower in Sugar?
Spinach
Spinach is lower in Sugar (difference - 1.63g)
Which food is lower in Saturated Fat?
Spinach
Spinach is lower in Saturated Fat (difference - 0.023g)
Which food is cheaper?
Spinach
Spinach is cheaper (difference - $0.2)
Which food is richer in minerals?
Spinach
Spinach is relatively richer in minerals
Which food is richer in vitamins?
Spinach
Spinach is relatively richer in vitamins
Which food contains less Sodium?
Arugula
Arugula contains less Sodium (difference - 52mg)
Which food contains less Cholesterol?
?
The foods are relatively equal in Cholesterol (0 mg)
Which food is lower in glycemic index?
?
The foods have equal glycemic indexes (32)

References

The source of all the nutrient values on the page (excluding the main article the sources for which are presented separately if present) is the USDA's FoodCentral. The exact links to the foods presented on this page can be found below.

  1. Spinach - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/168462/nutrients
  2. Arugula - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/169387/nutrients

All the Daily Values are presented for males aged 31-50, for 2000 calorie diets.

Data provided by FoodStruct.com should be considered and used as information only. Please consult your physician before beginning any diet.