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Jackfruit vs Durian - Health impact and Nutrition Comparison

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Jackfruit
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Durian

INTRODUCTION

Jackfruit and durian are king-size exotic fruits widely spread in South-East Asia. Both of them are famous for their specific smell and taste, and no doubt for their giant-like appearance. If you have never eaten them, they may look like similar for you or at least as members of the same family. As a matter of fact, they are two different fruits from various families, and specialists and local people can easily contradistinguish them. Let’s try to reveal some key points to differentiate jackfruit and durian.

Differences between jackfruit and durian

It is believed that jackfruit originated Southern India and dates back for over 5000 years. Durian originated from Sumatra and Borneo. It is first has been mentioned in Europe by 15th Century (1).

Jackfruit is related to the mulberry and the figs, and belongs to the Morocae family. In contrast, durian belongs to the Malvacae family. Jackfruit is the largest fruit growing on a tree; it can reach about 50 kg or 110 pounds, while the largest durian can weigh 14 kg or 30 pounds. About the position of fruits on the trees, jackfruits spring on the trunk or nearby, while durians are spread disorderly along the branches.

Both jackfruit and durian have thorny rind, but jackfruit has rather bumps or pimples, than thorns, that allows to hold it in hands. Durians thorns, on the other side, are sharper and larger, and if you have decided to hold a heavy durian, get ready for a lot of blooding cuts.

Durians are banned in the most of public places, hotels and eventually at airports not for their sharp thorns, but for their pungent odor, it is really awful! Some people describe it as sweaty socks, turpentine or stinky sewer water. Jackfruit is banned in some places too, because of its strong smell, but it smells like bubble-gum with a combination of pineapple, bananas and rotten-onions.

What about the inner part and a taste? The inner part of jackfruit is chaotic, edible parts are interlaced with slimy and stringy fibers. Besides there is stinky and thickened white latex flowing from skin and core. Controversially, durians inner part is well organized; the edible part is concentrated in five hallowed cavities, and there isn’t latex, which make easy to access the fruit.

Fully ripened jackfruit has a gummy, quite dense and fibrous texture. Its bulbs are crunchy and sweet, the flavor resembles the combination of bananas, pineapple, mango or yellow gum of Wrigley’s. Unripe durian has a chicken like flavor, which useful for vegans. On the other hand, durian has a creamy and soft texture, the flavor is something like a mix of sweet and savory, or sweet cheese.

NUTRITIONAL CONTENT COMPARISON

Macronutrients comparison

Before passing to the following part I would like to dwell on that there isn’t drastic difference in jackfruits and durians nutritional content. Anyway, as you can see from the charts of comparison below, durian is higher in calories, fats and carbs. Jackfruit is the winner in this part, despite the fact that durian is also higher in fiber.

Mineral comparison

From the viewpoint of minerals durian wins hands on. Durian is significantly higher in Copper, moderately higher in Zinc, Iron and Phosphorus. However jackfruit is higher in Calcium and Potassium.

Vitamin comparison

In the matter of vitamins durian is medal-holder again. Jackfruit is higher in Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Vitamin B5 and Vitamin B6. By contrast, it is worth mentioning that durian is extremely richer in Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B2, mildly richer in Vitamin B9, Vitamin B3 and Vitamin C.

HEALTH IMPACT

There are much more studies of jackfruit health impact, than durians. Nevertheless, I have done a little review some of them.

Health benefits

As both of them have almost similar nutrients content, their health impact is analogous too. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Durian (Durio Zebethinus) have distinguish antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-lipidemic and anticancer properties, that is why all parts of them (stem, seeds, roots, pulp) are being studied nowadays.

According to the study (2) the extract from the heartwoods of jackfruit, containing four antibacterial compounds, exhibited strong a wide spectrum of antibacterial activities. According to other studies extracts from the leaves of jackfruit had strong antibacterial activities against foodborn pathogens (3), and multidrug-resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infection (4). The study (13) is a first report of antibacterial activity of leaves extract of durian comparable to gentamicin.

Anti-inflammatory effect of jackfruits rind, spine and skin extracts had been tested comparable to diclofenac in the study (5), and skin exhibited maximal effect. On the other hand the study (14) shows that durian pulp extract has great antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

According to the different studies (6, 7, 8) leaves extract of jackfruits noticeably reduces blood glucose and cholesterol level, as well as improves glucose tolerance. The study (15) shows the durian rind extract can lower blood glucose levels diabetic rats.

Antioxidant effects of jackfruit are connected with phenolic, flavanoid, carotenoid contents and Vitamin C. According to the study (9) jackfruit pulp is natural source of these compounds, as well as durian pulp (16).

It seems essential to emphasize that jackfruit has powerful anticancer features. According to the study (10) plant lectin - jacalin, extracted from the jackfruit seeds, has potential preventive activity against colorectal cancer. According to another study (11) another type of lectin - ArtinM, also extracted from jackfruit seeds, may protect against hepatocarcinogenesis – liver cancer. There is also study (12) that shows the role of ArtinM in anti-leukemia treatment. There isn’t any reliable study of durian anticancer effect yet.

As jackfruit and durian are good source of Potassium, they also reduce blood pressure.

Vitamin A containing more in jackfruit protects our eyesight preventing against cataract. It also contributes to our skin protection, healing and anti-aging effects in cooperation with Vitamin C, which is higher in durian. Durian is extra higher in Thiamine (Vitamin B1) and Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), also higher in Niacin (Vitamin B3), that ensure the right metabolism, nervous system function, and essential energy for our organism. It also higher in Folic acid (Vitamin B9), which contributes to right formation of germ cells, prevents damage of blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaque formation by decreasing homocysteine levels in blood. It also prevents anemia.

High content of fiber in Durian improves digestion and contribute to the weight lose in combination of containing healthy fats.

The most of studies mentioned above have been done on experimental animal models, and it is advisable not to blindly trust them for improving your health.

Side effects

As jackfruit and durian lower blood levels of glucose, their combination with diabetes medications can lead to hypoglycemic state, so their dose might need to be moderate.

Jackfruit has also sedative effect, so avoid of it if you are going to do something which requires high concentration and attention. It is also not recommended consuming when you have already taken or are going to take a sedative medication.

What about durian side effects and interactions? Given that durian has hyperthermic effect it should not be taken with paracetamol and alcohol. According to the study (17) hyperthermic effect of durian consumption with paracetamol is not significant, but it significantly decreases blood pressure.

Since there aren’t enough studies, those recommend jackfruit and durian as a safe or useful for pregnant, it would be prudent avoid of them.

CONCLUSION

So, the aim of what has been said above is that durian and jackfruit are absolutely different fruits. Durian is higher in fiber and has low glycemic index. But jackfruit is low in terms of calories, fats and carbs, so it is the winner in macronutrients content. In mineral content durian wins especially given that Copper and Zinc. In vitamin content durian is undoubtedly winner too, especially due to extra higher Vitamin B1 and B2. Both of them are widely used by local people for different treatment proposes, and there is wide range of studies targeted to find scientific arguments of them, which can allow their further usage as a part of medications. Besides, combination of jackfruit or durian with some medications and alcohol may lead to a pretty pickle. Don’t forget about precautions before tasting them.

1. https://www.cuisinevault.com/jackfruit-vs-durian/
2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856717
3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20629886
4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24524024
5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28990815
6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2056756
7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2056756
8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20931077
9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20198442
10. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5476885/
11. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27815471
12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22132163
13. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326061743_Bacterial_Endo-Symbiont_Inhabiting_Durio_zibethinus_leaves_and_their_Antibacterial_Potential
14. http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my/23%20(03)%202016/(5).pdf
15. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211601X15000292
16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30871187
17. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Siew_Gan/publication/24186411_Hyperthermic_Effects_of_Durio_zibethinus_and_Its_Interaction_with_Paracetamol/links/0c96052a3ed5022fe9000000/Hyperthermic-Effects-of-Durio-zibethinus-and-Its-Interaction-with-Paracetamol.pdf

Infographic

Jackfruit vs Durian infographic
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Mineral Comparison

Mineral comparison score is based on the number of minerals by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
:
5
Durian
Contains more Calcium +300%
Contains more Iron +87%
Contains more Copper +172.4%
Contains more Zinc +115.4%
Contains more Phosphorus +85.7%
Equal in Potassium - 436
Equal in Magnesium - 30
Equal in Sodium - 2
Contains more Calcium +300%
Contains more Iron +87%
Contains more Copper +172.4%
Contains more Zinc +115.4%
Contains more Phosphorus +85.7%
Equal in Potassium - 436
Equal in Magnesium - 30
Equal in Sodium - 2

Vitamin Comparison

Vitamin comparison score is based on the number of vitamins by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
:
5
Durian
Contains more Vitamin A +150%
Contains more Vitamin C +43.8%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +256.2%
Contains more Vitamin B2 +263.6%
Contains more Vitamin B3 +16.7%
Contains more Folate, total +50%
Equal in Vitamin B5 - 0.23
Equal in Vitamin B6 - 0.316
Contains more Vitamin A +150%
Contains more Vitamin C +43.8%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +256.2%
Contains more Vitamin B2 +263.6%
Contains more Vitamin B3 +16.7%
Contains more Folate, total +50%
Equal in Vitamin B5 - 0.23
Equal in Vitamin B6 - 0.316

Vitamin and Mineral Summary Scores

Summary score is calculated by summing up the daily values contained in 300 grams of the product. Obviously the more the food fulfils human daily needs, the more the summary score is
Vitamin Summary Score
15
Jackfruit
24
Durian
Mineral Summary Score
11
Jackfruit
15
Durian

Macronutrients Comparison

Macronutrient comparison charts compare the amount of protein, total fats and total carbohydrates in 300 grams of the food. The displayed values show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
Protein
10%
Jackfruit
9%
Durian
Carbohydrates
23%
Jackfruit
27%
Durian
Fats
3%
Jackfruit
25%
Durian

Comparison summary table

Pay attention at the most right column. It shows the amounts side by side, making it easier to realize the amount of difference.
Jackfruit Durian
Lower in price ok
Lower in Sugars ok
Lower in Saturated Fat ok
Lower in glycemic index ok
Rich in minerals ok
Lower in Cholesterol Equal
Lower in Sodium Equal
Rich in vitamins Equal

Which food is preferable in case of diets?

ok
ok
is better in case of low diet
Jackfruit Durian
Low Calories diet ok
Low Fats diet ok
Low Carbs diet ok
Low glycemic index diet ok

People also compare

Comparison summary

Which food is cheaper?
Jackfruit
Jackfruit is cheaper (difference - $0.5)
Which food contains less Sugars?
Durian
Durian contains less Sugars (difference - 19.08g)
Which food is lower in Saturated Fat?
Durian
Durian is lower in Saturated Fat (difference - 0.195g)
Which food is lower in glycemic index?
Durian
Durian is lower in glycemic index (difference - 26)
Which food is richer in minerals?
Durian
Durian is relatively richer in minerals
Which food contains less Cholesterol?
?
The foods are relatively equal in Cholesterol (0 mg)
Which food contains less Sodium?
?
The foods are relatively equal in Sodium (2 mg)
Which food is richer in vitamins?
?
It cannot be definitely stated which food is richer in vitamins. See charts below for detailed information.

All nutrients comparison - raw data values

In the column "Opinion" we made some assumptions which could be controversial. For instance we are assuming that less saturated fats is good for you. Please ignore this column if you have your own opinion.We marked the nutrients, comparison of which we considered as not meaningful, as "N/A"
Nutrient Jackfruit Durian Opinion
Calories 95 147 Durian
Protein 1.72 1.47 Jackfruit
Fats 0.64 5.33 Durian
Vitamin C 13.7 19.7 Durian
Carbs 23.25 27.09 Durian
Cholesterol 0 0
Vitamin D
Iron 0.23 0.43 Durian
Calcium 24 6 Jackfruit
Potassium 448 436 Jackfruit
Magnesium 29 30 Durian
Sugars 19.08 Jackfruit
Fiber 1.5 3.8 Durian
Copper 0.076 0.207 Durian
Zinc 0.13 0.28 Durian
Starch 1.47 Jackfruit
Phosphorus 21 39 Durian
Sodium 2 2
Vitamin A 110 44 Jackfruit
Vitamin E 0.34 Jackfruit
Vitamin D
Vitamin B1 0.105 0.374 Durian
Vitamin B2 0.055 0.2 Durian
Vitamin B3 0.92 1.074 Durian
Vitamin B5 0.235 0.23 Jackfruit
Vitamin B6 0.329 0.316 Jackfruit
Vitamin B12 0 0
Vitamin K
Folate, total 24 36 Durian
Folic acid (B9) 0 Jackfruit
Trans Fat 0 0
Saturated Fat 0.195 Durian
Monounsaturated Fat 0.155 Jackfruit
Polyunsaturated fat 0.094 Jackfruit
Tryptophan 0.034 Jackfruit
Threonine 0.086 Jackfruit
Isoleucine 0.069 Jackfruit
Leucine 0.103 Jackfruit
Lysine 0.069 Jackfruit
Methionine 0.034 Jackfruit
Phenylalanine 0.052 Jackfruit
Valine 0.086 Jackfruit
Histidine 0.034 Jackfruit
Fructose 9.19 Jackfruit
The main source of information is USDA Food Composition Database (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
Dietary Guidelines for Americans is used as the primary source for advice in this web resource
Data provided by FoodStruct.com should be considered and used as information only. Please consult your physician before beginning any diet.