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Beef vs Chicken meat - Health impact and Nutrition Comparison

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Article author photo Victoria Mazmanyan by Victoria Mazmanyan | Last updated on November 29, 2020
Education: General Medicine at YSMU
Beef
vs
Chicken meat

Summary

In summary, beef contains more calories and fats, while chicken meat is higher in protein. The two types of meat are equal in the amount of cholesterol and do not contain carbohydrates. Beef is richer in most minerals, except sodium; however, chicken meat wins in the vitamin category, conceding only in vitamins B9 and B12.

Both beef and chicken can have negative associations with cardiovascular health, diabetes, and oncological conditions; however, chicken, especially breast meat, is the healthier choice.

Introduction

When making a choice about our meals, this question often comes up. Beef or chicken, which meat is healthier and which is the better choice overall? Here we will compare the two, their nutrition and effects on health, and discuss the results.

The main difference in appearance between these meats is readily apparent; it is the color. The color of meat is decided by the amount of myoglobin, and therefore iron, contained in the animal’s muscle. Chicken is classified as poultry and is white meat, while beef is considered to be red meat.

Both beef and chicken can be used in many different ways in the kitchen; however, chicken meat is considered to be more versatile.

Consumption

Out of all types of meat, the most widely consumed meat in the world is pork, followed by poultry such as chicken, leaving beef in third place. In the past 50 years, poultry production has nearly tripled, whereas beef production has been cut by half (2). There are a few reasons for this drastic change in meat consumption, one of them being that chickens are much easier to raise, demand less feed, and are, therefore, cheaper to produce. Beef production also has a significantly larger negative impact on the environment, causing a notable portion of greenhouse gas emissions.

Types of Meat

Many parts of the animal’s body can be used as food, each having its name.

The chicken is divided into three parts: the breast, the wings, and the legs. The breast is the most commonly used meat in the chicken, and it is also the lightest in color. The legs consist of the drumstick and the thigh, both being darker meats. The wing meat is lighter than the leg meat.

The meat of the cow is also classified depending on its location, like the chuck (shoulder), the brisket and shank (breast), the rib, the sirloin (hip), the short loin, the sort plate, the flake, and the round (1). Each type of meat has different qualities; therefore, the preparation methods also change.

Nutrition

In this section, we will be comparing roasted chicken meat and skin with broiled ground beef, consisting of 85% lean meat and 15% fat.

Beef is a little higher in fats and contains more calories, whereas chicken is richer in protein. Thus, chicken is the better option for people on low-calorie or low-fat diets. Both chicken and beef, like most meats, do not contain a notable amount of carbohydrates and have a glycemic index of 0.

Chicken has a much higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a lower concentration of saturated fatty acids. Beef has more monounsaturated fatty acids.

Chicken and beef are equal in the amounts of cholesterol.

Vitamins

Chicken meat is richer in most vitamins: vitamin E, vitamin K, vitamin B1, vitamins B3 and B5, and especially vitamin A. The two essential vitamins that beef has more of are vitamin B12 and folate.

The two types of meat are approximately equal in vitamin D, vitamin B2, and vitamin B5 and do not contain vitamin C.

Vitamin Comparison

Vitamin comparison score is based on the number of vitamins by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
Beef
3
:
Contains more Folate +80%
Contains more Vitamin B12 +780%
Contains more Vitamin A +1688.9%
Contains more Vitamin E +125%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +37%
Contains more Vitamin B3 +57.8%
Contains more Vitamin B5 +56.5%
Contains more Vitamin K +100%
Equal in Vitamin B2 - 0.168
Equal in Vitamin B6 - 0.4
Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin K 1% 3% 0% 0% 12% 41% 101% 40% 89% 7% 331% 3%
Vitamin A Vitamin E Vitamin D Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin B5 Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Vitamin K 10% 6% 0% 0% 16% 39% 160% 62% 93% 4% 38% 6%
Contains more Folate +80%
Contains more Vitamin B12 +780%
Contains more Vitamin A +1688.9%
Contains more Vitamin E +125%
Contains more Vitamin B1 +37%
Contains more Vitamin B3 +57.8%
Contains more Vitamin B5 +56.5%
Contains more Vitamin K +100%
Equal in Vitamin B2 - 0.168
Equal in Vitamin B6 - 0.4

Minerals

Beef easily wins in this category, containing a considerably higher amount of iron and zinc and being richer in calcium, potassium, and copper. Beef also contains less sodium.

The two are roughly equal in the amounts of magnesium and phosphorus.

Mineral Comparison

Mineral comparison score is based on the number of minerals by which one or the other food is richer. The "coverage" chart below show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of the food
Contains more Calcium +20%
Contains more Iron +106.3%
Contains more Potassium +42.6%
Contains less Sodium -12.2%
Contains more Zinc +225.3%
Contains more Copper +28.8%
Equal in Magnesium - 23
Equal in Phosphorus - 182
Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper 6% 98% 15% 85% 29% 10% 173% 29%
Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Zinc Copper 5% 48% 17% 78% 20% 11% 53% 22%
Contains more Calcium +20%
Contains more Iron +106.3%
Contains more Potassium +42.6%
Contains less Sodium -12.2%
Contains more Zinc +225.3%
Contains more Copper +28.8%
Equal in Magnesium - 23
Equal in Phosphorus - 182

Health Impact

Cardiovascular Health

The American Heart Association recommends eating poultry, such as chicken, instead of red meats, such as beef, pork, and lamb. As red meats contain more saturated fatty acids and trans fats, they can raise your blood cholesterol and worsen underlying cardiovascular conditions (3).

However, saturated fatty acids are not the only compounds within red meats that influence the cardiovascular state. Daily consumption of red meat has been shown to triple blood levels of a chemical called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), produced in the stomach and linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Other products that are added in processed red meats, such as sodium, nitrates, and their byproducts, may also contribute to their adverse health effects. And lastly, researchers identified that heme iron, which is abundant in red meat, is easily absorbed into the bloodstream and may be another risk factor for cardiovascular health (4).

Lean cuts of beef and non processed meat are advised to consumers trying to lead a healthier lifestyle.

Latest studies suggest that a higher intake of processed meat, unprocessed red meat, and poultry is significantly associated with a small increased risk of incident cardiovascular diseases. Higher consumption of processed meat, unprocessed red meat, but not poultry was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (5). This means that chicken, whilst being healthier for cardiovascular conditions in comparison to beef, is not devoid of its own risks on cardiovascular health.

Diabetes

Both red meat and poultry are associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. Some studies suggest that people with high red meat and poultry intake are twice as likely to develop diabetes compared to those who do not consume meat (6). Red meat and processed meat stand out as contributors to the risk.

This increase in risk is most likely associated with the heme iron content, which is higher in red meat when compared to poultry. However, after adjusting for heme iron content in the diet, the red meat and diabetes association was still present, suggesting that other chemicals within red meat may also be responsible for the diabetes risk increase. Contrastingly, the association between poultry consumption and diabetes mellitus was lost after the adjustment, suggesting that only the heme iron content in poultry is accountable for the increased risk (7).

The risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 also increases depending on the preparation method of the meat. Recent studies suggest that frequent use of high heat cooking methods, such as broiling, barbecuing, or grilling and roasting, to prepare beef and chicken, increased the risk of type 2 diabetes. The exact mechanisms are unclear; however, some chemicals formed during high heat cooking, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic aromatic amines, and nitrosamines, may be responsible for the effect (8).

Substituting red meat and poultry with fish and shellfish has been studied to be a healthier choice for people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (7). For beef and chicken, cooking them at lower temperatures or high temperatures for only a short time may decrease the risk.

Cancer

There have been numerous studies about the increased risk of cancer due to the consumption of red and processed meats. Consumption of red meat, such as beef, increases the risk of nasopharynx, pancreas, and lung cancers, whilst processed meat additionally increases the risk of esophagus and stomach cancers. Of course, the preparation method also plays a role here. High heat cooking methods, such as barbecuing, broiling, or grilling, increase the risk of stomach cancer (9). Some studies also find an association between red meat intake and breast cancer (10).

In contrast, poultry may lead to a decreased risk of cancers, such as colorectal, esophageal, and lung cancers. However, one study found an association between eating chicken with the skin and prostate cancer, potentially due to the compound formations from the high heat cooking (11). Other studies have also found eating poultry to increase the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (10).

Allergies

While meat allergies are quite rare, they do occur, and it is important to be informed about them.

Meat allergies can develop at any point in life. A bite from the Lone Star tick can be the cause of developing meat allergies related to the compound called alpha-gel.

If you are allergic to one type of meat, the risk of being allergic to other types increases. Studies have also found that for children with milk allergies, the risk of having a meat allergy is higher (12).

Symptoms are similar to most food allergies, causing an oral allergy syndrome, including itching, swelling, and redness of the mouth area, as well as nausea, vomiting, stomachaches, diarrhea, and other symptoms.

Beef vs. Chicken Bone Broth

Bone broth is the liquid substance you get after boiling animal bones and connective tissues for a period of time. Other names for this are stock, bouillon, or consomme. However, there is not a single conclusive definition of what a bone broth is. What to add to this liquid is up to the person making it. So bone broth, made from beef or chicken; which is better, and how different are they?

Beef having thicker bones takes a longer amount of time to be made into a broth compared to chicken. Chicken broth is a little easier to digest.

Nutritionally chicken and beef bone broth are similar to the meat’s nutrition; chicken bone broth is higher in proteins and polyunsaturated fats, while beef bone broth is higher in minerals. Carbohydrate and sodium concentration depends on the preparation method, additives, or brand.

Overall, bone broths can be healthy, but it is important to remember to consume them in moderation.

Bans and Religion

Cows are famously considered to be sacred animals in India’s majority religion Hinduism. Because of this, beef consumption has been a controversial issue in the country for a long time. Other popular religions in India, such as Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, also prohibit the murder and consumption of cows. Legislature surrounding cattle slaughter varies from state to state, being completely banned in some states, and having no regulations in others.

For people celebrating the Christian period of Lent, all meat consumption during this period is prohibited.

For people following the Islamic law, only Halal meat is acceptable, meaning meat that has been acquired in a prescribed manner in accordance with Muslim dietary laws. Similarly, for Jewish people adhering to the kosher guidelines, only Kosher foods are acceptable.

References

  1. https://ediblekentucky.ediblecommunities.com/recipes/locavores-guide-beef
  2. https://ourworldindata.org/meat-production#meat-production-by-type
  3. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/meat-poultry-and-fish-picking-healthy-proteins
  4. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/news/2019/say-what-scientists-claim-red-meat-and-white-meat-can-have-equal-effects-blood
  5. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2759737
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3942738/
  7. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/09/170905134506.htm
  8. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2018/03/23/
  9. https://www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer/exposures/meat-fish-dairy
  10. https://jech.bmj.com/content/73/Suppl_1/A15.1
  11. https://osher.ucsf.edu/patient-care/integrative-medicine-resources/cancer-and-nutrition/faq/animal-protein-cancer-risk
  12. https://acaai.org/allergies/types/food-allergies/types-food-allergy/meat-allergy
Article author photo Victoria Mazmanyan
Education: General Medicine at YSMU
Last updated: November 29, 2020

Infographic

Beef vs Chicken meat infographic
Infographic link

Comparison summary table

Pay attention to the most right column. It shows the amounts side by side, making it easier to realize the amount of difference.
Beef Chicken meat
Lower in Saturated Fat ok
Lower in price ok
Rich in vitamins ok
Lower in Sodium ok
Rich in minerals ok
Lower in Sugar Equal
Lower in Cholesterol Equal
Lower in glycemic index Equal

All nutrients comparison - raw data values

Nutrient Beef Chicken meat Opinion
Net carbs 0g 0g
Protein 25.93g 27.3g Chicken meat
Fats 15.41g 13.6g Beef
Carbs 0g 0g
Calories 250kcal 239kcal Beef
Starch g g
Fructose g g
Sugar 0g 0g
Fiber 0g 0g
Calcium 18mg 15mg Beef
Iron 2.6mg 1.26mg Beef
Magnesium 21mg 23mg Chicken meat
Phosphorus 198mg 182mg Beef
Potassium 318mg 223mg Beef
Sodium 72mg 82mg Beef
Zinc 6.31mg 1.94mg Beef
Copper 0.085mg 0.066mg Beef
Vitamin A 9IU 161IU Chicken meat
Vitamin E 0.12mg 0.27mg Chicken meat
Vitamin D 2IU 2IU
Vitamin D 0µg 0µg
Vitamin C 0mg 0mg
Vitamin B1 0.046mg 0.063mg Chicken meat
Vitamin B2 0.176mg 0.168mg Beef
Vitamin B3 5.378mg 8.487mg Chicken meat
Vitamin B5 0.658mg 1.03mg Chicken meat
Vitamin B6 0.382mg 0.4mg Chicken meat
Folate 9µg 5µg Beef
Vitamin B12 2.64µg 0.3µg Beef
Vitamin K 1.2µg 2.4µg Chicken meat
Tryptophan 0.094mg 0.305mg Chicken meat
Threonine 0.72mg 1.128mg Chicken meat
Isoleucine 0.822mg 1.362mg Chicken meat
Leucine 1.45mg 1.986mg Chicken meat
Lysine 1.54mg 2.223mg Chicken meat
Methionine 0.478mg 0.726mg Chicken meat
Phenylalanine 0.725mg 1.061mg Chicken meat
Valine 0.914mg 1.325mg Chicken meat
Histidine 0.604mg 0.802mg Chicken meat
Cholesterol 88mg 88mg
Trans Fat 0.572g g Chicken meat
Saturated Fat 5.895g 3.79g Chicken meat
Monounsaturated Fat 6.668g 5.34g Beef
Polyunsaturated fat 0.484g 2.97g Chicken meat

Which food is preferable for your diet?

ok
ok
is better in case of low diet
Beef Chicken meat
Low Fats diet ok
Low Carbs diet Equal
Low Calories diet ok
Low glycemic index diet Equal

People also compare

Vitamin and Mineral Summary Scores

The summary score is calculated by summing up the daily values contained in 300 grams of the product. Obviously the more the food fulfills human daily needs, the more the summary score is.
Vitamin Summary Score
52
Beef
36
Chicken meat
Mineral Summary Score
55
Beef
31
Chicken meat

Macronutrients Comparison

Macronutrient comparison charts compare the amount of protein, total fats, and total carbohydrates in 300 grams of the food. The displayed values show how much of the daily needs can be covered by 300 grams of food.
Protein
156%
Beef
164%
Chicken meat
Carbohydrates
0%
Beef
0%
Chicken meat
Fats
71%
Beef
63%
Chicken meat

Comparison summary

Which food is lower in Saturated Fat?
Chicken meat
Chicken meat is lower in Saturated Fat (difference - 2.105g)
Which food is cheaper?
Chicken meat
Chicken meat is cheaper (difference - $1)
Which food is richer in vitamins?
Chicken meat
Chicken meat is relatively richer in vitamins
Which food contains less Sodium?
Beef
Beef contains less Sodium (difference - 10mg)
Which food is richer in minerals?
Beef
Beef is relatively richer in minerals
Which food contains less Sugar?
?
The foods are relatively equal in Sugar (0 g)
Which food contains less Cholesterol?
?
The foods are relatively equal in Cholesterol (88 mg)
Which food is lower in glycemic index?
?
The foods have equal glycemic indexes (0)

References

The source of all the nutrient values on the page (excluding the main article the sources for which are presented separately if present) is the USDA's FoodCentral. The exact links to the foods presented on this page can be found below.

  1. Beef - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/174032/nutrients
  2. Chicken meat - https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/171450/nutrients

All the Daily Values are presented for males aged 31-50, for 2000 calorie diets.

Data provided by FoodStruct.com should be considered and used as information only. Please consult your physician before beginning any diet.